Constans II had little time to warm the seat of his throne before he, and the Senate acting as his regent, had to deal with the ever-expanding Arab Caliphate. In 361 Constantius was recalled to the West by the revolt of Julian, his caesar in Gaul since 355, but became ill on the way and died. Taking advantage of the fact that Lombard king Grimoald I of Benevento was engaged against Frankish forces from Neustria, Constans disembarked at Taranto and besieged Lucera and Benevento. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom.

Although the precocious emperor addressed the senate with a speech blaming Heraklonas and Martina for eliminating his father, he reigned under a regency of senators led by Patriarch Paul II of Constantinople. Constans led a fleet to attack the Muslims at Phoinike (off Lycia) in 655 at the Battle of the Masts, but he was defeated: 500 Byzantine ships were destroyed in the battle, and the Emperor himself was almost killed. He attempted to end the Church’s divisive debate on Christ’s nature and will but succeeded in only antagonising the Popes and ensuring his name would be denigrated by Christian historians thereafter.

The sea battle was so devastating that the emperor escaped only by trading clothes with one of his men. In the long-running saga which split the eastern and western branches of the Church over ecclesiastical doctrine, the edict was condemned by Pope Martin I in 649 CE. The former was the more serious as it was the richest province in the empire and the most important source of grain. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. He had rescued the empire from disaster when Constantinople was besieged in 626 CE but had lost Jerusalem to the Persians. Naturally, this live-and-let-live compromise satisfied few passionate participants in the dispute. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [4] The situation was complicated by the violent opposition to Monothelitism by the clergy in the west and the related rebellion of the Exarch of Carthage, Gregory the Patrician. Don't Cross The Bridge Until You Come To It Examples,

pp. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Put Your Arms Around Me Lyrics, Constans is a nickname given to the Emperor, who had been baptized Herakleios and reigned officially as Constantine. Constans attempted to steer a middle line in the church dispute between Orthodoxy and Monothelitism by refusing to persecute either and prohibiting further discussion of the natures of Jesus Christ by decree in 648 (the Type of Constans). Warren Treadgold, Byzantium and Its Army 284-1081 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995). This article was most recently revised and updated by. Although on friendly terms with Vitalian, he stripped buildings, including the Pantheon, of their ornaments and bronze to be carried back to Constantinople, and in 666 declared the Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over the Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative.
Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In 644 Valentinus attempted to seize power for himself but failed. License. In 644 Valentinus attempted to seize power for himself but failed.
p. 312. [1][2] Constans is a diminutive nickname given to the Emperor, who had been baptized Herakleios and reigned officially as Constantine. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Meanwhile, the advance of the Caliphate continued unabated.

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