As several archaeologists have noted, there is something ineffably “Indian” about the Indus valley civilization. Throughout Asia, rice farmers produce significant agricultural surpluses from terraced, hillside rice paddies[? ; It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, in contemporary Pakistan and Western India. In the 19th century, British engineers discovered that the abundant bricks found in the ruins — in which they expressed no evident curiosity — provided excellent raw materials for railway construction. At first, farming settlements began around 4000 BCE, and around 3000 BCE there appeared the first signs of urbanization. The best-known site of this culture is Mehrgarh, established around 6500 BC[?]. ], a powerful technology that was brought to fruition by classical Indian civilization but nearly forgotten in the 20th century. Judging from the abundant figurines depicting female fertility that they left behind, Indus civilization people — like modern Hindus — may have held a special place in their worship for a mother goddess and the life-affirming principles she represents (see shakti and Kali). As regards the dresses no actual specimens of clothing have fallen into the hands of the excavators and we have to make conjectures about their dress from the various figures. Alfred Fairservis is a scientist who actually came up with a way to translate Indus script, and although it is not universally accepted, it someday could be. However, certain scholars regard this script as Sanskrit while other considers it as Dravidian. In India, these beliefs soon gave way to a substantially more advanced and sophisticated religious tradition, Hinduism, which looks to the most ancient Vedas as a source of legitimacy but departs from them philosophically in significant ways. You can learn more and/or modify your settings in the special section. But probably the most important of these industries was weaving. Features of Indus Valley Civilization. The inscriptions on the seals discovered at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro prove that the people of Indus Valley knew some sort of writing. Introduction to Indus Valley Civilisation 2. In addition, it is known that Indus civilization people practiced rainfall harvesting[? Did they refer to some other river? Your essay should provide examples of cultural (remember the components of, River Valley Civilizations’ is a term used to refer to great civilizations that grew along river valleys. It was part of a larger, mythological narrative that was used to legitimate the English colonization of the “weak” and “dark” peoples of India. Various objects of head dressing like ivory combs, bronze mirrors have been discovered. The main building material was brick, both fired and sun-baked, of a rigorously standardized size. We have also not come across any monumental sculpture in any of the remains. Nevertheless, the Indus civilization was by far the most geographically extensive of the three earliest civilizations. All three authors agree that the language was used mostly for legal matters such as naming people on their seals, making contracts, accounting, and the like; the script was not used for literature like Mesopotamian script in The Epic of Gilgamesh. With a view to keep the wells neat and clean steps were provided. The people of the Indus Valley were both vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Siva as a deity is as popular with the people today as it was during the time of the Indus Valley civilisation. The buildings were generally erected on high platform to protect them against floods, which seem to have been quite common. If this is indeed the Indus civilization’s achievement, it is among the most noble in all human history. Although the “Citadels” are walled, it is far from clear that these structures were defensive. Although some houses were larger than others, Indus civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent egalitarianism.

Race of Indus Civilisation 3. Whether or not there was an elite class, in the end, as Kenoyer suggests, they – whether “they” were leaders or just officials – could not keep hold of the rapidly growing urban civilization, and the empire, which had at one point had more land than both Egypt and Mesopotamia, collapsed due to unknown reasons, passing on a little of its religion and none of its technology to the tribes who would later inhabit the area where a great civilization had once stood.

The Indus Valley, civilisation combines the features of the Neolithic and copper age. to about 1500 B.C. Don't use plagiarized sources. The people of Indus Valley also knew about the footage system. The Indus Valley has a larger geographical reach than Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Introduction to Indus Valley Civilisation 2. “Indus Valley Civilization. Morever, there is one, small piece of evidence suggesting that the script embodies a well-known, widespread, and complex communication system. Reference this. At its peak, its population may have exceeded five million people.

In this essay we will discuss about Indus Valley Civilisation:- 1. and the lower layers must have belonged to earlier period. Typically, the city is divided into two sections. To be sure, Indus civilization people did not disappear. Certain animals and birds still regarded as the vehicles or vahana of certain deities. The Indus civilization’s economy was based on a very well organized agriculture. But R. B. Dikshit is of the view that the people of Indus Valley developed an indepen­dent script of their own. It cannot be said for certain as to who were the invaders who destroyed the Indus Valley civilisation. Indus Valley Civilization (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. In recent years excavation at village Alamirpur near Meerut and in Saurashtra have also revealed the similar remains. Describe and analyze the cross-cultural influences in a Mediterranean and Indus Valley context.

Social Life of the People 6.

this essay is not unique. The relationship between the Indus civilization and the early Sanskrit language culture that produced the Vedic texts of Hinduism is unclear. The people also knew about wild animals like lion, rhino­ceros, tiger, monkey, bear etc. left by rivers after the flood season, but this simple method of agriculture is not thought to be productive enough to support cities.

Secondly, certain scholars believe that the earthquake or cyclone might have been responsible for the decadence of Indus Valley culture. Some of the causes advanced by the scholars are as follows: Firstly, some scholars contend that due to decrease in rainfall, Sindh might have become desert and people might have migrated to some other place. For example, all houses had access to water and drainage facilities. is a platform for academics to share research papers.

The Indus Valley Civilization In 2300 B. C. the Indus Valley Civilization began developing itself into two large areas which ran along the river valleys of the Indus, Ravi and Sutlej. He suggests that there was not a political pyramid, rather a social pyramid – but that there was a pyramid. While some of the weights are so heavy that they could not be picked up with hands and were used with the help of ropes, while the others were so small that it appears that they were used exclusively by the jewelers. In the centuries to come — and again, in sharp contrast to its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt — recollection of the Indus civilization and its achievements seemed to disappear from the record of human experience. They cultivated wheat, bailey rice and bred cattle sheep, fish and poultry for food.

The presence of lamp posts at intervals indicates that the system of street lighting also existed. Some of the prominent games of the tune were dice playing. Although the people of Indus Valley could not produce works of art on a large scale, they displayed notable artistic achievement at-least in seal engravings, especially those of animals. Long Essay Question Over 1000 settlements have been found, the majority along the path of the extinct Ghaggar-Hakra river, which once flowed — like the Indus — through what is now known as the Indus Valley.

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