Table 3:  For less than 2.0 psig (13.8 kPa-g) inlet pressure and 3.0 inch w.c. (746 Pa) drop, using Schedule 40 steel pipe, sizes ½-inch (DN-15) to 4-inch (DN-100). 8—Two-phase-flow patterns in horizontal flow (courtesy of AMEC Paragon). Online Books & Manuals

J Pet Technol 36 (3): 361-367.

| Contact | Privacy Policy, Home pressure drop because of elevation increase in the segment, psi. This has resulted in the smaller flow values predicted by the simplified equations on long and/or small pipes being more than double what the flow capacity might actually be. Fig. Fig. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the available low pressure natural gas flow equations among themselves and with the tables in the codes. The basic equation developed to represent steady-state fluid flow is the Bernoulli equation which assumes that total mechanical energy is conserved for steady, incompressible, inviscid, isothermal flow with no heat transfer or work done. In using some of these figures, the relationship between viscosity in centistokes and viscosity in centipoise must be used (Eq. Note: You can calculate gases as liquids, if the relative change of density is low (change of density/density = 0.02). Disclaimer 12)where. (Note:  Reynolds number is “dimensionless,” meaning that all units in the numerator and the denominator must cancel. | Feedback 3. ed. The comparisons were set up for each of the following:  given inlet pressure, given ending pressure, distance in feet, pipe diameter (actual), and pipe interior surface roughness (where considered). specific gravity of gas at standard conditions relative to air (molecular weight divided by 29).

All computations performed used 0.6 as the specific gravity.

Higher specific gravity means higher viscosity, lower Reynolds number, and higher value for “f”. Thus, at low flow rates, the total pressure drop is the sum of the pressure drops for all of the uphill runs.

With Laminar Flow being dependent on the pipe diameter as well as the velocity, Laminar Flow is more prevalent in smaller pipes than in larger pipes. 1972. (Results compared to Darcy), Laminar Flow Data Not Included – only 57 points. The strength of the equivalent length method is that it is very simple to calculate. (Eq. Gas Processors Suppliers Assn.).

2—Sketch four Bernoulli equation (courtesy of AMEC Paragon). ε = pipe inside diameter roughness, same units as “D”.

The incompressible flow assumption is valid for liquids. The multiphase flow in vertical and inclined pipe behaves somewhat differently from multiphase flow in horizontal pipe. Table 4:  For less than 2.0 psig (13.8 kPa-g) inlet pressure and 6.0 inch w.c. (14.9 kPa) drop, using Schedule 40 steel pipe, sizes ½-inch (DN-15) to 4-inch (DN-100).

Griffith, P. 1984.

“f”will equal approximately 0.0413 at this intersection. ;

1980.

Equations used:  NFPA/IFGC equation, Low Pressure Mueller Equation, and Low Pressure Spitzglass Equation. Multiphase Flow in Pipes. You must log in to edit PetroWiki.

Distances:  10 feet (3 meters) to 2,000 feet (610 meters) for steel pipe and copper tubing; in increments similar to NFPA 54 and IFGC. For practical pipeline purposes, Eq. Re = Reynolds Number (unitless) Calculate pressure drop, flow rate and pipe diameter in natural gas pipeline. The compressibility factor, Z, for natural gas can be found in Fig.

Pipe flow and friction pressure drop, head energy loss | Darcy formula From Bernoulli equation all other practical formulas are derived, with modifications due to energy losses and gains. p = Density (kg/m3) 11)where.

This is evident from the tables above when the Laminar Flow data is eliminated from the comparison.

Eq. It is expressed as (Eq. 4 can be used for the viscosity of crude oil, Fig. Advertising Crane Flow of Fluids, Technical Paper No. Several references were used to evaluate the baseline equation to make the comparison. The reader will need to use his/her reference material to provide the needed correction factors). Table 2:  For less than 2.0 psig (13.8 kPa-g) inlet pressure and 0.5 inch w.c. (124 Pa) drop, using Schedule 40 steel pipe, sizes ½-inch (DN-15) to 12-inch (DN-300). Engineering Book Store Since the NFPA, Mueller, and Spitzglass, formulas and the NFPA tables do not outline the Reynolds Number, the first thing to do would be to determine the appropriate critical flow for each pipe size, associated with the Reynolds numbers 4,000 and 1,549. Some examples of resistance coefficients are listed in Tables 4 and 5.

The classic equation for Reynolds number is: Re = ρ V D /μ                                                                                        (Equation 2), μ = gas dynamic viscosity – 6.98311E-06 lbm/ft/sec (0.010392 centipoise).

ω = Flow Velocity (m/s).

It is also valid for gases if the pressure drop is less than 40% of the upstream pressure. It is also recommended for long runs of pipe ( > 20 miles) such as cross-country transmission pipelines and for moderate Reynolds numbers. (Eq.

5—Effective viscosity of an oil/water mixture (courtesy of AMEC Paragon). Equations 2 and 3 have not been corrected to include units.

However, below the critical regions, all of the equations and tables reviewed provide excessive estimates of pipeline flow capacities. lg = Short for Log. Type K copper is also suggested in the codes for low pressure natural gas piping.

Fig. Note:  Reynolds Number Range:  1.1E+03 to 4.1E+05. As the gas/liquid ratios continue to increase, the wave heights of the liquid increase until the crests contact the top of the pipe, creating liquid slugs. Δh = pressure drop in pipe ( H1 – H2 ) – inches w.c. (Pa), L = length of the pipe segment – Feet (meters). It is not unusual for measured pressure drops in the field to differ by ± 20% from those calculated by any of these models. p2 = Pressure leaving (kg/m2) 3)where, The Reynolds number is a dimensionless parameter that is useful in characterizing the degree of turbulence in the flow regime and is needed to determine the Moody friction factor. New York City: Crane Manufacturing Co. Engineering Data Book, ninth edition.

efficiency factor (new pipe: 1.0; good operating conditions: 0.95; average operating conditions: 0.85), specific gravity of gas at standard conditions, lbm/ft, specific gravity of liquid, relative to water, lbm/ft. (m). and Loomis,A.W. p1 = Pressure incoming (kg/m2)

{ Again, the CV is published for most valves and fittings and can be found in Crane Flow of Fluids, Engineering Data Book, Cameron Hydraulic Data Book, as well as the manufacturer’s technical data. Fig. 6)where.

High pressure was defined as inlet pressures above 1.5 psig (10.3 kPa) to over 50 psig (345 kPa). As will be discussed later, there is also a transition between Partially Turbulent Flow and Laminar Flow; this transition is not closely defined because it occurs between “Re” being 2,000 and 4,000. ω = Flow Velocity, Pressure drop by gravity or vertical elevation, Δp = Pressure Drop It is also recommended for shorter lengths of segments ( < 20 miles) within production batteries and for branch gathering lines, medium- to high-pressure (+/–100 psig to > 1,000 psig) applications, and a high Reynolds number.

Eq. 3 can be expressed in terms of pipe inside diameter (ID) as stated next.

The North American Combustion Handbook (3rd Edition – 1986) places the specific gravity of natural gas between 0.59 and 0.64.

Calculating “f” involves an iterative process since the square root of “f” is part of the denominator on both sides of the equation for “f.” The Darcy-Weisbach equation is as follows: hL = f ( )                                                                                           (Equation 1), Where:             hL = gas head loss in feet (meters) of fluid – in this case natural gas, f = friction flow coefficient - dimensionless, D = internal diameter of the pipe, same units as “L”, V = gas velocity in feet per second (meters per second), g = gravitational constant 32.174 feet per second^2 (9.806 meters per second^2).

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